In the shampoo market, some kind of surfactant can be found in regular shampoo or shampoo that is definitely not sulphate. Shampoos have cleaning properties when surfactant
is added to the formula because the surfactant has the effect of detergents. Its main purpose is to remove dirt, excess sebum and grease from hair. We all know that curly hair loses its moisture as a result of dyeing, so using a shampoo that contains an irritating surfactant can cause natural oils and the water needed in the hair to fall out.
Surfactant molecules include hydrophobicity and hydrophilicity. Hydrophobic is in the tail, and it is nonpolar. Hydrophilic is in the head, and it is polar. This dual nature makes it clean. In water of good concentration, a three-dimensional structure called a micelle is formed by gathered surfactant molecules. The three-dimensional structure is made up of non-polar tails surrounded by shells formed by polar parts of the molecules. It is a cluster of molecules with an oily center. These micelles act by first absorbing the oil on the skin, hair or clothing and trapping it inside until it is removed from the surface by washing it with water.
It can be classified according to the polarity of the surfactant head. If the surfactant head has a positive charge, it is classified as a positive ion. If the surfactant head is negatively charged, it is classified as an anion. If the surfactant contains two heads with opposite charge groups, it is a ampholyte. Nonionic surfactants have no charge groups in their heads.
Based on the above knowledge, we have a basic understanding of the chemical properties of surfactants. But the question remains: which surfactants are less irritation to the skin and hair, which means they are more gently and do not cause hair loss, and which surfactants are stimulating?
Pick a gentle shampoo:
1. Don't use products containing sulfates and sulfonates.
2. Shampoo with non-ionic and amphoteric surfactants is preferred. In the composition table, these surfactants should be listed immediately behind the water, which means these surfactants are higher than any other anionic surfactants mentioned in the composition table.
3. Choose a shampoo that contains only a mild anion surfactant.
4. The ingredient list should contain a polymer or quaternary ammonium compound to counteract the drying effect caused by the shampoo.