The most widely used chemical preservative in baked goods is propionic acid and its salt. Although some consumers think propionate is not a necessary chemical additive. But propionic acid is naturally present in Swiss cheese about one percent. Propionate is used as a preservative in baked goods in amounts of less than one percent.
is an antimicrobial and is often used in bread. It inhibits mold growth and can be added to bread to extend the shelf life of the product. Calcium propionate is a preferred antimicrobial and is most commonly used in baking as an inhibitor of breadmould.
The antibacterial action of propionic acid was written in 1913 in a book published by Hoffman et al. Studies in 1939 showed that propionic acid had an effective antimicrobial effect at a pH of 5.0-6.0.
Propionate has the effect of inhibiting mold. Yeast activity in baking foods used in yeast fermentation is only slightly affected. However, high levels of propionate can delay yeast activity and prolong fermentation time.
Propionate does little for bacteria, but it has the ability to block the growth of enterobacter, which is responsible for "tethers" in bread and other yeast-fermented products. This is an exception.
Because pH plays an important role, it's propionic. At pH4.8 (pKa value), about 50% of calcium propionate dissociated in calcium and propionic ions.