Acrylonitrile plays a great role in our production and life. Some people are not very clear about the use of acrylonitrile. Therefore, what are the uses of acrylonitrile?
Acrylonitrile is a colorless liquid with a pungent odor, which is flammable, and its vapor can form explosive mixtures with air. In case of open flame and high heat, it is easy to cause combustion and release toxic gas. It will react violently with oxidants, strong acids, strong bases, amines, and bromine. Acrylonitrile is slightly soluble in water, and its low-concentration aqueous solution is very unstable and easily soluble in common solvents. Acrylic acid is formed during hydrolysis, and propionitrile is formed during reduction. It is easy to polymerize and can also be copolymerized with vinyl acetate, vinyl chloride and other monomers. In industry, acrylonitrile is mainly used in the manufacture of acrylic fiber, nitrile rubber, ABS engineering plastics and acrylates and acrylic resins.
Acrylonitrile is an important monomer for synthetic fibers, synthetic rubbers and synthetic resins. The polyacrylonitrile fiber obtained from acrylonitrile is acrylic fiber, and its properties are very similar to those of wool, so it is also called synthetic wool. The copolymerization of acrylonitrile and butadiene can produce nitrile rubber, which has good oil resistance, cold resistance, abrasion resistance, and electrical insulation properties, and its performance is relatively stable under the action of most chemical solvents, sunlight and heat. Acrylonitrile is copolymerized with butadiene and styrene to obtain ABS resin, which has the advantages of light weight, cold resistance and good impact resistance. The hydrolysis of acrylonitrile can produce acrylamide and acrylic acid and its esters. They are important organic chemical raw materials.
Acrylonitrile belongs to the highly toxic category, which can cause acute poisoning and chronic poisoning after entering the human body. Clinical symptoms of acute poisoning caused by acrylonitrile: symptoms of mild poisoning may include fatigue, dizziness, headache, nausea, vomiting, etc., accompanied by mucosal irritation; symptoms of severe poisoning may include chest tightness, palpitations, restlessness, dyspnea, cyanosis, convulsions, coma in addition to the above symptoms. If patient is not rescued in time, respiratory arrest may occur. The chronic toxicity of acrylonitrile to human body is still inconclusive, generally manifested as neurasthenic syndrome, such as dizziness, headache, fatigue, insomnia, dreaminess, irritability and so on. In addition, acrylonitrile can cause contact dermatitis, manifested as erythema, herpes and desquamation, and may cause pigmentation after healing. All patients with cardiovascular and nervous system organic diseases and active liver and kidney diseases are not suitable for work related to acrylonitrile.
For the production site of acrylonitrile, an open-air frame building should be used as much as possible to facilitate the diffusion and dilution of poisons. When workers enter the reactor for cleaning operations, sufficient ventilation must be carried out to remove residual poisons. In addition, gas masks should be worn for operation.